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An attitude is an evaluation of people, ideas, issues, situations, or objects.

An attitude has three parts: thoughts, feelings, and actions.

Attitudes range along a continuum from positive and negative

Your attitudes toward people are the result of the beliefs and feelings you have about yourself and about other people and attitudes directly affect your treatment of both.

Attitudes are usually tied in with self-esteem

Happiness is an attitude-one that most people strive for. Many studies have shown that you can choose to have a happy or positive attitude

Happiness doesn't seem to have much to do with a person's age, gender, occupation, or wealth.



1.  Healthy Self-Esteem

    Love yourself, and you will be happy

2.  Optimism

    Happy people are hope-filled

3.  Extraversion

    A happy person, or an extravert, is an outgoing person--one whose behavior is directed outward toward others.

4.  Personal Control

    Personal Control is the power people have over their destinies. People with a high degree of personal control plan and manage their time well




The key is feedback: Everyone needs feedback.  Literally, feedback means "returning a part of the the input"

When giving attitude-improving feedback, be sure to deal with facts rather than opinions, and descriptions rather than judgments.

The giver of feedback should also try to strike a balance between negative and positive feedback.  Some authorities on this subject suggest giving 2 positives for every 1 negative.

When people reached their goals, they felt a sense of mastery but their real pleasure cam from the process itself, rather than achieving the goal.

Csikszentmihalyi calls these moments optimal experiences, he refers to the process as the flow.

Csikszentmihalyi  has found 8 components that are usually found in a flow experience

1.  The actiivity requires a specific skill and is challenging

2.  Attention is completely absorbed by the activity

3.  There are clear goals for the activity

4.  Feedback is clear about how you are doing

5.  You are concentrating only on the task itself

6.  you achieve a sense of personal control

7.  You lose a sense of self-awareness

8.  You lose your sense of time



When job satisfaction is very high, employees are less likely to be absent for unexcused reasons. Job performance leads to job satisfaction, not vice versa


Working Conditions that Help Job Satisfaction

  1. Mentally challenging work with which the individual can cope successfully

  2. Personal interest in the work itself

  3. Work that is not too physically tiring

  4. Rewards for performance that are just, informative, and in line with the individual's personal attributes

  5. Working conditions that are compatible with the individual's physical needs and help toward the accomplishment of his or her work goals

  6. High self-esteem on the part of the employee

  7. Agents in the workplace who help the employee to gain job values, such as interesting work, pay, and promotions; whose basic values are similar to his or her own; and who keep conflicts to a minimum.



Theory X managers believe that:

1.  Most people don't really want to work, don't enjoy working, and will avoid work when possible

2.  Most people have to be bribed, controlled, directed, or threatened with punishment to get them to put forth enough effort to achieve necessary goals

3.  Most people prefer to be directed, want to avoid responsibility, and want security above all else

Theory X principles are necessary in certain work situations, when work is repetitive and uninteresting.


Theory Y managers believe that:

1.  Putting forth physical effort and mental effort in work is as natural as play or rest.

2.  Controlling and threatening punishment are not the only methods of getting employees to be productive

3.  The objectives of the organization can also be met by rewarding people with various forms of praise and recognition

4.  Most people can learn to accept and even seek responsibility

5.  Many, not few, people are creative and imaginative

6.  Under the conditions of modern organizations, the mental abilities of the average person are extremely underutilized

Three factors must be considered before implementing a Theory Y style"

A.  The maturity level of the employees

B.  The meaningfulness of the work

C. The speed of the transition



1.  They spread like diseases

2.  They destroy the workplace

3.  They damage productivity

4.  They hurt morale




Changing Pessimism to Optimism


1.  Describe the situation

2.  What is the worst possible outcome of this situation, and is there anything you could do to prevent this outcome?

3.  What is the best outcome that could occur in this situation, and is there anything you could do to make the best outcome occur?

4.  What do you see as the most likely outcome, and what will you do to cope if the most likely outcome occurs?


Building Positive Attitudes

1.  As much as possible, be positive

2.  Don't get trapped in someone else's negative attitude.

3.  Look for the good qualities in yourself, in others, and in your organization

4.  Don't let situations outside of you push you around.

5.  Become goal oriented.


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