People, Groups and Their Leaders
WHY DO PEOPLE JOIN GROUPS?
The are 2 type of groups:
Formal Groups: One that is usually governed by the formal structure of the organization. e.g basketball teams, student government
Informal Groups: One that is formed around common interests, habits, and personality traits.
People join groups to fulfill needs that can't be fulfilled when acting alone.
WHAT MAKES A GROUP
A group is defined as two or more people who ;
Share common goals
Have unspoken or formal rules or norms
Maintain stable role relationships
FORMAL GROUPS AND THEIR DEVELOPMENT
The development of a formal group goes through a group process, a way group members deal with each other while working on a task.
1. Forming In this initial stage,
members take a look at their task, adjust themselves in terms of what behaviors
are expected of them, and begin
accepting each other
2. Redefining Group members examine the task as a group problem
3. Coordinating The groups begins to collect information and translating it into group objectives. This stage takes the longest.
4. Formalizing This is the point where the group works smoothly in its roles and can accomplish its objectives
STATUS AND CONFORMITY IN GROUPS
Status is the rank an individual holds within a group
Six sources of status:
Conformity is a willingness to behave in a way that meets a specific standard, in coordination with a group
A problem with too much conformity is that: It can kill creativity and discourages people from saying what is really on their minds.
Leaders of informal groups are appointed 2 ways:
By appointing themselves
The group chooses the leader by consensus
The 4 basic qualities that informal groups have in common:
They fulfill the needs of members
They are usually necessary to an organization
They are always changing
They are not affected by formal boundaries
BARRIERS TO GROUP EFFECTIVENESS
Groupthink: a problematic type of thinking that results from a group members who are overly willing to agree with one another because of time pressure, stress, and low collective self-esteem.
There are a number of reasons for ineffective groups- groupthink, conflict, lack of creativity, one-member domination, and resistance to change,
To improve group effectiveness:
Change ineffective norms
Improving the composition of the group
Some groups are also effecting by members with hidden agendas
Hidden agenda - are secret wishes, hopes, desires, and assumptions, hidden from the group. People often try to accomplish hidden agendas while pretending to care about the group goals.
LEADERSHIP: WHAT IT IS AND WHAT IT REQUIRES
Leadership: Is the ability to influence others to work toward the goals of an organization
Without effective leadership, groups function poorly or not at all
Autocratic leaders are leaders who make all the decisions and use authority an material rewards to motivate
Consultative leaders tend to delegate authority and confer with others in making decisions
Participative leaders encourage the group to work together toward shared goals
Free-Rein leaders set performance standards, then allow followers to work creatively to meet standards
Leaders and the Use of Power and Authority
Power is the ability of one person to influence another.
Authority is the vested power to influence or command within an organization
Sources of Power
Legitimate Power is the effective only when followers beleiev in the structure that produces this power
Reward Power comes from the user's ability to control or influence others with something of value to them
Coercive Power depends on the threat of possible punishments
Networking Power is attained by gaining contracts and knowing the right people
Expert Power comes from a person's knowledge or skill in areas that are critical to the success of the firm
Charismatic Power is based on the attractiveness a person has to others.
Strong emotions in other members
Contradictions between verbal and nonverbal signals
Themes that keep coming up, perhaps disguised, even after the formal topic has been changed
Agenda conflicts that involve a group member's self esteem
Strengthen your legitimate power
Strengthen your reward power
Strengthen your coercive power
Strengthen your networking power
Strengthen your expert power
Strengthen your charismatic power
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