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Personal & Organizational





Values are the worth or importance you attach to different factors is your life

All of your values taken together are called a value system, the set of standards by which you have chosen to live

A corporate culture is a system of shared values throughout any given company or other organization

Conflicts between people, often are bases on differences in value

Attitudes are often affect by values, and values conflicts with other people certainly involve attitude problems--but values are a deeper, and in some ways, more important part of everyone's lives and organizations

Personal values are formed in early childhood and are affectively strongly by the values of parents and the child's environment.


3 value patterns have emerged since the early 1970's

1.  The nature of a person's paid job is now much more significant

2.  Leisure time is more valued, mostly because it has become a rare commodity

3.  Americans now insist much more strongly that jobs become less impersonal, and more human and humane.


Other important factors that help form values are religions, political views, parents, socioeconomic class, education or lack of it, television, the Internet, and other mass media.



Terminal and Instrumental

Terminal values are likely to maintain a high priority throughout your life

Instrumental values reflect the ways you prefer to behave

Instrumental Values Terminal Values



Capability, effectiveness











Love and tenderness

Obedience, respect





A comfortable and prosperous life

An exciting, stimulating, and active life

A sense of accomplishment or lasting contribution

A world at peace, free of war and conflict

A world of beauty, nature, and art

Equality, brotherhood, and equal opportunity

Family security, taking care of loved ones

Freedom, independence, and free choice

Happiness and contentment

Inner harmony and freedom from inner conflict

Mature love, sexual and spiritual intimacy

National security

An enjoyable life

Salvation and eternal life

Self-respect and high self-esteem

Social respect and admiration

True friendship

Wisdom in understanding life



1.  The theoretical person  This the individual seeks to discover truth

2.  The economic person  Personal needs, production, marketing, credit, and wealth are more important to this type of person than are social or artistic values

3.  The aesthetic person Beauty, form, and harmony are most important to this type of individual

4.  The social person This person values and loves other people kindness and unselfishness are both very important values.

5.  The political person This type is very power-motivated

6.  The religious person to this individual, the highest value is unity.


Integrity can be defined as soundness of moral character. Others have defined integrity as living up to the principles you claim to believe, or practicing what you preach

Without integrity, one can never achieve trust.




Value conflicts occur when one set of values clashes with another, and a decision has to be made



Types of Value conflict:

Interpersonal Value Conflict

Personal Versus Group Values

Internal Value conflict


These conflicts often result in cognitive dissonance, the emotional state that results from acting in ways that contradict one's beliefs or other actions.


Choices to deal with cognitive dissonance:

1.  you can change your original beliefs

2.  You can use denial

3.  You can get into self-justification

4. You can change your own behavior




A. Views of power and authority

B.  Views of the individual versus the group

C.  Tolerance for uncertainty

D.  The value of punctuality



Redefining your Personal Values: The Rath Test


1. Did I choose this value freely, with no outside pressure?

2.  Did I choose this value from several alternatives?

3.  Did I consider the consequences of my choice?

4.  Do I like and respect this value?

5.  Will I defend this value publicly?

6.  Will I base my behavior on this value?

7.  Do I find this value persistent throughout my life?


Building a Character Ethic for Integrity


1. Focus     Put the life you  have lived so far into focus

2. Respect     Do you respect yourself and, in turn, demand respect from others

3.  Responsibility    Be willing to accept responsibility for whatever you do, right or wrong

4.  Pride    Practice feeling good about yourself

5.  Fairness and Equity    Believe in the rights of others and never violate those rights

6.  Trust and Being Trusted  Never let someone down when that person trusts you



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