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The Planet Earth

 

 

Largest Geode

The largest geode ( a mineral-lined cave) is near Almeria Spain. It is 26 ft long, 6ft wide, 6ft high, and is about six million years old . Most geodes are small enough to fit in the palm of a human hand.

Largest Volcano Crater

The world's largest volcano crater is Toba in Sumantra, Indonesia, coverinf 685 miles. It is inactive and last erupted around 75,000 years ago.

Largest Active Volcano

Mauna Loa, Hawaii, USA, is 75 miles long and 31 miles wide, with lava flows that occupy more than 1,980 miles of the island. It has a total volume of 16,400 miles of which  84.2% is below sea level. It has averaged one eruption every 3.6 years since 1843, although non since 1984.

 

Deepest Lake


The world's deepest lake is Lake Baikal, in Siberia, Russia. The deepest point of the lake, the Olkhon Crevice, has a depth of 1,637 m (5,371 ft), of which 1,181 m (3,875 ft) are below sea level. It is also the oldest freshwater lake on Earth, having formed between 20 and 25 million years ago. Baikal also contains one-fifth of all the world’s fresh surface water! The lake is roughly crescent-shaped, 636 km (395  miles) long, with a surface area of 31,500 km² (12,200 miles²).

 

Highest Cliffs


The highest sea cliffs in the world are those on the north coast of east Molokai, near Umilehi Point, Hawaii, USA, which descend 1,010 m. (3,300 ft.) to the sea at an average gradient of more than 1 in 1.428.
 


Largest Cave


The largest cave chamber in the world is the Sarawak Chamber (Lubang Nasib Bagus), in the Gunung Mulu National Park, Sarawak, Malaysia. It is a record 700 m. (2,300 ft.) long and 70 m. (230 ft.) high, with an average width of 300 m. (985 ft.).

 

Largest Glacier


The Lambert Glacier is the world's largest glacier. It covers more than 1,000,000 km² (386,102 miles²) and was discovered by an aircraft crew in the Australian Antarctic Territory in 1956/7. Not unlike a major river, Lambert is fed by several tributary glaciers before emptying on to the Amery ice shelf, and it drains about a fifth of the East Antarctic ice sheet.
 

 

Longest-Lasting Echo


The longest echo detected in any building lasted 15 seconds. It was produced by closing the door of the chapel of the Mausoleum in Hamilton, South Lanarkshire, Scotland, built 1840–55.

 

The World's Longest Reef


The Great Barrier Reef, situated off the coast of Queensland, Australia, stretches a total distance of 2,027 km (1,260 miles). Corals on the reef are occasionally devastated by the crown of thorns starfish.

 

Oldest Earth Fragment

A tiny crystal of zircon is the oldest fragment of Earth discovered so far. Between 4.3 and 4.4 billion years old, this ting sample is 100 million years older than any previous discovery.

Largest Ocean


Excluding adjacent seas, the Pacific Ocean represents 45.9% of the world's oceans and covers 166,241,700 km² (64,186,000 miles²) in area. The average depth is 3,940 m (12,925 ft). The ocean was first given its name, which means "peaceful" in 1520 by the Portuguese navigator Ferdinand Magellan. Across its greatest length it measures 17,700 km (10,998 miles).
 


Coldest Inhabited Village


The coldest inhabited village is Oymyakon, in Yakutia, eastern Siberia, Russia. Temperatures there can drop to as low as -70°C (-94°F). The average in January, the coldest month, is -50°C (-58°F). The town is in a valley surrounded by two high mountains that trap cold winter air and prevent warmer air getting in. Snow covers the ground from early autumn to mid spring.

 

Greatest Mountain Range


The world's greatest land mountain range is the Himalayas, which contains 96 of the world's 109 peaks of over 7,315 m (24,000 ft).

 

Highest Sand Dunes


The world's highest measured sand dunes are those in the Saharan sand sea of Isaouane-n-Tifernine in east-central Algeria. They have a wavelength of 5 km (3 miles) and attain a height of 465 m (1,526 ft). The Sahara is the largest desert in the world, but the whole region was fertile land until about 8,000 years ago.

 

Largest Delta


The world's largest delta is that created by the Ganges and Brahmaputra rivers in Bangladesh and West Bengal, India. It covers an area of 75,000 sq. km. (30,000 sq. miles).

 

Largest Island


Discounting Australia, which has an area of 7,682,300 sq km. (2,966,200 sq miles) but is usually regarded as a continental landmass, the largest island in the world is Greenland, with an area of about 2,175,600 sq km (840,000 sq miles).
 

 

Largest Swamp


The world's largest tract of swamp is the Pantanal, in the states of Mato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul in Brazil. It is about 109,000 sq km (42,000 sq miles) in area.

 


Smallest Ocean


The Arctic Ocean, with an area of 9,485,000 sq km (3,662,000 sq miles), is the smallest ocean. It has a maximum depth of 5,450 m (17,880 ft). The Arctic Ocean is not completely enclosed by land, however, and so is sometimes refered to as an arm of the Atlantic. It is also connected to the waters of the Pacific Ocean by the Bering Strait.

 

Longest River


The Nile is credited as the longest river in the world. Its main source is Lake Victoria, in east central Africa. From its farthest stream in Burundi, in eastern Africa, it extends 6,695 km (4,160 miles) in length.

 

Deepest Valley

Asia's Yarling Zangbo river valley stretching from Tibet to Bangladesh has an average depth if 16,405 ft with its deepest point at 17,658 ft - more than three times as deep as the Grand Canyon

Largest River To Dry Up


For several months a year, the 5,464-km (3,442-mile) Yellow River in China now dries up in Henan province. This is due to below-average rainfall, increased irrigation, and the industrial demands of a growing population.

 

Deepest Point In The Ocean


The deepest part of the ocean was first pinpointed in 1951 by HM Survey Ship Challenger in the Marianas Trench in the Pacific Ocean. On January 23, 1960, the US Navy Trieste vessel descended to the bottom of the Pacific Ocean, and on March 24, 1995, the Japanese probe Kaiko recorded a depth of 10,911 m (35,797 ft), the most accurate measurement yet taken.

 

Largest Basin


The largest river basin in the world is that drained by the Amazon. It covers about 7,045,000 sq km (2,720,000 sq miles).

 

Largest Continent Ever


Two-hundred-and-fifty million years ago, all of today's continents were joined together as one "supercontinent", which now we call Pangaea or Pangea (meaning "all lands" in Greek). Around 180 million years ago Pangaea began to slowly break apart due to plate tectonics, eventually leading to the land masses of today. Evidence of Pangaea is immediately obvious when you see that the coastlines of Africa and South America seem to fit together.

 

Largest Lake


The largest lake in the world is the Caspian Sea (in Azerbaijan, Russia, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, and Iran). It is 1225-km (760-miles) long and its area is 371,800 sq km (143,550 sq miles). The Caspian Sea yields good supplies of fish, including salmon, carp, herring and sturgeon, the main source of caviar.

 

Most Extracted Metal


In 1999, 521 million tonnes (512,771,586 tons) of iron were produced worldwide from the processing of mined iron ore.

 

Softest Mineral


Talc is the softest mineral on Earth. Moh's scale of hardness uses talc as its starting-point, with a value of 1.00. The mineral is so soft it can be scratched very easily by a fingernail. Talc is an ingredient of soap, chalk and, of course, talcum powder. Blocks of impure talc are known as soapstone.

 

Highest Active Volcano

The Ojos del Salado on the border between Chile and Argentina is the world's highest active volcano as 22.895 ft high

Smallest Continent

Of  all  the continents the Australian mainland, with an area of 2.939,960 miles is the smallest.

Largest Continent

Asia is the largest continent in the world, covering an area of 17,388,686 miles. Africa ranks second with a land area of 11,715,721 miles.

Tallest Mountain


Although Mt Everest is officially the highest mountain on Earth, the sneaky peaks of Mauna Kea have their own height record. Mauna Kea is a volcanic island rising from the bottom of the Pacific Ocean. The mountain's combined height is 10,205 m (33,480 ft), of which 4,205 m (13,796 ft) are above sea level. Mt Everest has a complete height above sea level of 8,848 m. (29,028.8 ft). Mauna Kea began erupting on the sea floor about 800,000 years ago.

 

Earliest Homo Erectus


This species (upright man), the direct ancestor of Homo sapiens, was discovered by Eugéne Dubois (Netherlands) (1858-1940) at Trinil, Java in 1891. Javan H. erectus were dated to 1.8 million years in 1994.

This species (upright man), the direct ancestor of Homo sapiens, was discovered by Eugéne Dubois (Netherlands, 1858-1940) at Trinil, Java in 1891. Javan Homo erectus were dated to 1.8 million years in 1994. The species Homo erectus is believed to originate from the species Homo ergaster, with features including a long skull shaped with thick cranial walls, and a prominent brow-bridge over the eyes.

 

Largest Desert


The Sahara, in North Africa, is the largest desert in the world. At its greatest width, it's 5,150 km (3,200 miles) from east to west. The area covered by the desert is about 9,269,000 sq. km (3,579,000 sq miles). The boundaries of the Sahara have been shifting since its formation, and the whole region was fertile land only around 8,000 years ago. Despite the lack of rainfall, there do exist some underground rivers which flow from the Atlas mountains underneath the desert. The river Nile passes through the Sahara in the Nubian Desert region and transforms the sandy wastes into a lush, fertile plain. In contrast, the region of the desert in Libya is particularly arid and hostile. Some of the dunes in the area are over 120-m (390-ft).

 

Most Active Volcano


Kilauea, on Hawaii, USA, is the world’s most active volcano. It has been erupting continuously since 1983, and discharges lava at a rate of 5 cu. m. (177 cu. ft.) per second.

 

 Most Extracted Non-Metallic Element


In 1998, 350,000,000 tonnes of hydrogen was extracted. Carbon was the next most extracted non-metallic element in 1998 - 16,200,000 tonnes of the element were extracted.

 

 

 

 

 

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