The largest geode ( a mineral-lined
cave) is near Almeria Spain. It is 26 ft long, 6ft wide, 6ft high, and is
about six million years old . Most geodes are small enough to fit in the
palm of a human hand.
Largest Volcano Crater
The world's largest volcano crater is Toba in Sumantra, Indonesia,
coverinf 685 miles. It is inactive and last erupted around 75,000 years ago.
Largest Active Volcano
Mauna Loa, Hawaii, USA, is 75 miles long and 31 miles wide, with lava
flows that occupy more than 1,980 miles of the island. It has a total volume
of 16,400 miles of which 84.2% is below sea level. It has averaged one
eruption every 3.6 years since 1843, although non since 1984.
The world's deepest lake is Lake Baikal, in Siberia, Russia. The
deepest point of the lake, the Olkhon Crevice, has a depth of 1,637 m (5,371
ft), of which 1,181 m (3,875 ft) are below sea level. It is also the oldest
freshwater lake on Earth, having formed between 20 and 25 million years ago.
Baikal also contains one-fifth of all the world’s fresh surface water! The
lake is roughly crescent-shaped, 636 km (395 miles) long, with a surface
area of 31,500 km² (12,200 miles²).
The highest sea cliffs in the world are those on the north coast of
east Molokai, near Umilehi Point, Hawaii, USA, which descend 1,010 m. (3,300
ft.) to the sea at an average gradient of more than 1 in 1.428.
The largest cave chamber in the world is the Sarawak Chamber (Lubang
Nasib Bagus), in the Gunung Mulu National Park, Sarawak, Malaysia. It is a
record 700 m. (2,300 ft.) long and 70 m. (230 ft.) high, with an average
width of 300 m. (985 ft.).
The Lambert Glacier is the world's largest glacier. It covers more
than 1,000,000 km² (386,102 miles²) and was discovered by an aircraft crew
in the Australian Antarctic Territory in 1956/7. Not unlike a major river,
Lambert is fed by several tributary glaciers before emptying on to the Amery
ice shelf, and it drains about a fifth of the East Antarctic ice sheet.
The longest echo detected in any building lasted 15 seconds. It was
produced by closing the door of the chapel of the Mausoleum in Hamilton,
South Lanarkshire, Scotland, built 1840–55.
The World's Longest Reef
The Great Barrier Reef, situated off the coast of Queensland,
Australia, stretches a total distance of 2,027 km (1,260 miles). Corals on
the reef are occasionally devastated by the crown of thorns starfish.
|Oldest Earth Fragment
A tiny crystal of zircon is
the oldest fragment of Earth discovered so far. Between 4.3 and 4.4 billion
years old, this ting sample is 100 million years older than any previous
Excluding adjacent seas, the Pacific Ocean represents 45.9% of the
world's oceans and covers 166,241,700 km² (64,186,000 miles²) in area. The
average depth is 3,940 m (12,925 ft). The ocean was first given its name,
which means "peaceful" in 1520 by the Portuguese navigator Ferdinand
Magellan. Across its greatest length it measures 17,700 km (10,998 miles).
Coldest Inhabited Village
The coldest inhabited village is Oymyakon, in Yakutia, eastern
Siberia, Russia. Temperatures there can drop to as low as -70°C (-94°F). The
average in January, the coldest month, is -50°C (-58°F). The town is in a
valley surrounded by two high mountains that trap cold winter air and
prevent warmer air getting in. Snow covers the ground from early autumn to
Greatest Mountain Range
The world's greatest land mountain range is the Himalayas, which
contains 96 of the world's 109 peaks of over 7,315 m (24,000 ft).
Highest Sand Dunes
The world's highest measured sand dunes are those in the Saharan sand
sea of Isaouane-n-Tifernine in east-central Algeria. They have a wavelength
of 5 km (3 miles) and attain a height of 465 m (1,526 ft). The Sahara is the
largest desert in the world, but the whole region was fertile land until
about 8,000 years ago.
The world's largest delta is that created by the Ganges and
Brahmaputra rivers in Bangladesh and West Bengal, India. It covers an area
of 75,000 sq. km. (30,000 sq. miles).
Discounting Australia, which has an area of 7,682,300 sq km.
(2,966,200 sq miles) but is usually regarded as a continental landmass, the
largest island in the world is Greenland, with an area of about 2,175,600 sq
km (840,000 sq miles).
The world's largest tract of swamp is the Pantanal, in the states of
Mato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul in Brazil. It is about 109,000 sq km
(42,000 sq miles) in area.
The Arctic Ocean, with an area of 9,485,000 sq km (3,662,000 sq
miles), is the smallest ocean. It has a maximum depth of 5,450 m (17,880
ft). The Arctic Ocean is not completely enclosed by land, however, and so is
sometimes refered to as an arm of the Atlantic. It is also connected to the
waters of the Pacific Ocean by the Bering Strait.
The Nile is credited as the longest river in the world. Its main
source is Lake Victoria, in east central Africa. From its farthest stream in
Burundi, in eastern Africa, it extends 6,695 km (4,160 miles) in length.
Asia's Yarling Zangbo river valley stretching from Tibet to Bangladesh
has an average depth if 16,405 ft with its deepest point at 17,658 ft - more
than three times as deep as the Grand Canyon
Largest River To Dry Up
For several months a year, the 5,464-km (3,442-mile) Yellow River in
China now dries up in Henan province. This is due to below-average rainfall,
increased irrigation, and the industrial demands of a growing population.
Deepest Point In The Ocean
The deepest part of the ocean was first pinpointed in 1951 by HM
Survey Ship Challenger in the Marianas Trench in the Pacific Ocean.
On January 23, 1960, the US Navy Trieste vessel descended to the
bottom of the Pacific Ocean, and on March 24, 1995, the Japanese probe
Kaiko recorded a depth of 10,911 m (35,797 ft), the most accurate
measurement yet taken.
The largest river basin in the world is that drained by the Amazon.
It covers about 7,045,000 sq km (2,720,000 sq miles).
Largest Continent Ever
Two-hundred-and-fifty million years ago, all of today's continents
were joined together as one "supercontinent", which now we call Pangaea or
Pangea (meaning "all lands" in Greek). Around 180 million years ago Pangaea
began to slowly break apart due to plate tectonics, eventually leading to
the land masses of today. Evidence of Pangaea is immediately obvious when
you see that the coastlines of Africa and South America seem to fit
The largest lake in the world is the Caspian Sea (in Azerbaijan,
Russia, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, and Iran). It is 1225-km (760-miles) long
and its area is 371,800 sq km (143,550 sq miles). The Caspian Sea yields
good supplies of fish, including salmon, carp, herring and sturgeon, the
main source of caviar.
Most Extracted Metal
In 1999, 521 million tonnes (512,771,586 tons) of iron were produced
worldwide from the processing of mined iron ore.
Talc is the softest mineral on Earth. Moh's scale of hardness uses
talc as its starting-point, with a value of 1.00. The mineral is so soft it
can be scratched very easily by a fingernail. Talc is an ingredient of soap,
chalk and, of course, talcum powder. Blocks of impure talc are known as
|Highest Active Volcano
The Ojos del Salado on the
border between Chile and Argentina is the world's highest active volcano as
22.895 ft high
Of all the continents the Australian mainland, with an area
of 2.939,960 miles is the smallest.
Asia is the largest continent in the world, covering an area of
17,388,686 miles. Africa ranks second with a land area of 11,715,721 miles.
Although Mt Everest is officially the highest mountain on Earth, the
sneaky peaks of Mauna Kea have their own height record. Mauna Kea is a
volcanic island rising from the bottom of the Pacific Ocean. The mountain's
combined height is 10,205 m (33,480 ft), of which 4,205 m (13,796 ft) are
above sea level. Mt Everest has a complete height above sea level of 8,848
m. (29,028.8 ft). Mauna Kea began erupting on the sea floor about 800,000
Earliest Homo Erectus
This species (upright man), the direct ancestor of Homo sapiens, was
discovered by Eugéne Dubois (Netherlands) (1858-1940) at Trinil, Java in
1891. Javan H. erectus were dated to 1.8 million years in 1994.
This species (upright man), the direct ancestor of Homo sapiens, was
discovered by Eugéne Dubois (Netherlands, 1858-1940) at Trinil, Java in
1891. Javan Homo erectus were dated to 1.8 million years in 1994. The
species Homo erectus is believed to originate from the species
Homo ergaster, with features including a long skull shaped with thick
cranial walls, and a prominent brow-bridge over the eyes.
The Sahara, in North Africa, is the largest desert in the world. At
its greatest width, it's 5,150 km (3,200 miles) from east to west. The area
covered by the desert is about 9,269,000 sq. km (3,579,000 sq miles). The
boundaries of the Sahara have been shifting since its formation, and the
whole region was fertile land only around 8,000 years ago. Despite the lack
of rainfall, there do exist some underground rivers which flow from the
Atlas mountains underneath the desert. The river Nile passes through the
Sahara in the Nubian Desert region and transforms the sandy wastes into a
lush, fertile plain. In contrast, the region of the desert in Libya is
particularly arid and hostile. Some of the dunes in the area are over 120-m
Most Active Volcano
Kilauea, on Hawaii, USA, is the world’s most active volcano. It has
been erupting continuously since 1983, and discharges lava at a rate of 5
cu. m. (177 cu. ft.) per second.
Most Extracted Non-Metallic Element
In 1998, 350,000,000 tonnes of hydrogen was extracted. Carbon was the
next most extracted non-metallic element in 1998 - 16,200,000 tonnes of the
element were extracted.